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Multilevel modelling has rapidly become established as the appropriate tool for modelling data with complex hierarchical structures. It is important for extending our understanding of social, biological and other sciences beyond that which can be obtained through single level modelling. Multilevel modelling is now being used in Education, Medical science, Demography, Economics, Agriculture and many other areas.
The term multilevel refers to a nested membership relation among units in a system. In an education system, for example, students are members of classes, and classes are grouped within schools. When 'single level' techniques such as multiple regression are applied to data from a structure such as this, the analysis will ignore important aspects of the data structure and the results will often be misleading.
The basic procedures for modelling purely hierarchical data have been extended to include cross-classifications and cases where lower level units belong to more than one higher level unit. Thus, models can now be fitted to data with extremely complex structures.
Multivariate regression and multivariate analysis of variance can be conducted in a particularly flexible manner using a multilevel approach. The models can also be used to fit growth curves and other repeated measures data with either continuous or discrete responses, estimate variance and covariance components from studies with complex designs, and analyse data from studies employing rotation sampling. Multilevel time series data can be modelled. Multilevel generalised linear models can be fitted: for example, logit, log-log or probit models for binary response data and macros are available for multinomial ordered or unordered logistic models. Multilevel survival or event history models can be fitted. Complex sample survey data can be modelled flexibly and efficiently.