Referencing the MLwiN software and manuals


MLwiN software


If you have used the software in published work, please use the following citations:

MLwiN Version 2.02

Rasbash, J., Charlton, C., Browne, W.J., Healy, M. and Cameron, B. (2005) MLwiN Version 2.02. Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.

MLwiN Version 2.10

Rasbash, J., Charlton, C., Browne, W.J., Healy, M. and Cameron, B. (2009) MLwiN Version 2.10.  Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.

MLwiN Version 3.00

Charlton, C., Rasbash, J., Browne, W.J., Healy, M. and Cameron, B. (2017) MLwiN Version 3.00.  Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.

Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) estimation

If you are using MCMC estimation methods, we ask that you additionally cite:

Browne, W.J. (2017) MCMC Estimation in MLwiN v3.00.  Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.


MLwiN Manuals


You may want to reference material in the manuals. If so the correct references are:

Rasbash, J., Steele, F., Browne, W.J. and Goldstein, H. (2017) A User’s Guide to MLwiN, v3.00. Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.

Browne, W.J. (2017) MCMC Estimation in MLwiN, v3.00.  Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.

Rasbash, J., Charlton, C., Jones, K. and Pillinger, R. (2017) Manual Supplement to MLwiN v3.00. Centre for Multilevel Modelling, University of Bristol.