Dr George Leckie

George Leckie

Reader in Social Statistics



I am a Reader in Social Statistics and Co-Director of the Centre for Multilevel Modelling (CMM) at the Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, UK. I also hold a status-only Associate Professor position at the Graduate Department of Applied Psychology and Human Development, University of Toronto, Canada. I am currently an Associate Editor of the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A.

Previously, I held research positions at the Centre for Market and Public Organisation, Department of Economics, University of Bristol and have been a visiting fellow at Cornell University, Queensland University of Technology, UCL Institute of Education London, University of York, and VU University Amsterdam.

I have held an ESRC Future Research Leaders grant and have previously been a co-investigator on several other ESRC grants. My research has been published in various international journals, including: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A; Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics; Journal of Educational Measurement; and Journal of Statistical Software. I was awarded the Wood Medal in the Royal Statistical Society's 2017 honours for my contributions to Social Statistics.

I have taught over 40 multilevel modelling short courses across UK, Europe, Australia and US.

Research interests

My methodological interests are in the development, application and dissemination of multilevel and other latent variable models to analyse educational and other social science data. Particular areas of interest include multilevel analysis of non-hierarchical data (e.g., cross-classified models, multiple membership models), longitudinal data analysis (e.g., growth-curve models, latent class growth analysis, growth mixture models, dynamic models), and dyadic data analysis (e.g., actor-partner interdependence model, social relations model).

My substantive interests in educational research include: statistical properties of school performance indicators and their associated publication in league tables; value-added models (VAMs) for estimating school and teacher effects on student achievement; statistical modelling of rater effects on test scoring; and quantifying neighbourhood, school and family effects on child outcomes. I also frequently collaborate with co-authors working in other disciplines, including: anthropology, dentistry, economics, epidemiology, management, psychology, social policy, and sociology.

My statistical software interests are in developing runmlwin and runmixregls, commands to fit multilevel models in the MLwiN and the MIXREGLS software from within Stata.

Research grants - Current

Research grants - Past


At undergraduate level, I teach sessions on Y1 Convincing Stories and I am Unit Director on a new Y2 quantitative methods unit in education. 

At masters level, I am a Unit Tutor on the Statistics in Education, teaching half the unit. I am Unit Director on Multivariate Statistical Methods in Education and also teach half of this unit. I am also a personal tutor and supevise masters dissertations.

At PhD level, I run four two-day PhD short courses on the Advanced Quantitative Methods pathway of the ESRC South West Doctoral Training Centre (SWDTC):

I also run two three-day fee-paying short courses for external academic researchers and PhD students:

I first supervise two and second supervise two PhD students applying multilevel modelling to address substantive research questions in the social sciences.

At EdD level, I supervise two EdD students.

I have also taught over 40 other multilevel modelling short courses across UK, Europe, Australia and US, including: Belfast, Brisbane, Bristol, Brussels, Cincinnati, Dublin (Centre for Longitudinal Studies in Ireland), Dublin (Royal College of Surgeons, Ireland), Dublin (University College Dublin), Essex, Ghent, Giessen, Malmo, Oxford, London (Royal Statistical Society), Paris (Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development), Southampton, Sydney, Tuebingen, and Zurich.

I author an extensive set of multilevel modelling training materials for the LEMMA Multilevel Modelling Online Course.

Professional activities

I play an active role in the Royal Statistical Society. I am currently an Associate Editor of the Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, Series A. Since 2008, I have taught (with Professor Harvey Goldstein) an annual two-day course on multilevel modelling for the society's short-course programme. Previously, I sat on the Social Statistics Section committee and the Professional Development Centre committee. I have published in the society's Series A (Statistics in Society) journal and Significance magazine and have peer reviewed for Series A and Series C. I have presented regularly at the society's annual conference and at various society local group meetings.

I have worked or advised on a range of government and other external projects: Bulgarian Ministry of Education and Science; Catholic University of Portugal; Colombian Evaluation Institute; Higher Education Academy; Home Office; King’s College London (MRC grant); National Assessment Agency; National Center for Educational Achievement (NCEA) / ACT testing company; National Institute for Certified Educational Measurements, Slovak Republic; Pearson Education; RAND Europe; The Times and Sunday Times Data Analysis Team; University of Birmingham (DoH grant); University of Oxford (Ofqual grant); University of the West of England (Unilever grant: Dove); World Bank.

Other professional activities:

Journal articles

  1. Browne, D. T., Kumar, A., Puente-Duran, S., Georgiades, K., Leckie, G., & Jenkins, J. Emotional Problems among Recent Immigrants and Parenting Status: Findings from a National Longitudinal Study of Immigrants in Canada. PLoS ONE. Forthcoming.
  2. Goldstein, H., Leckie, G., Charlton, C., Tilling, K., & Browne, W. J. Multilevel growth curve models that incorporate a random coefficient model for the level 1 variance function. Statistical Methods in Medical Research. Forthcoming.
  3. Baird, J.-A., Meadows, M, Caro, D., and Leckie, G. (2017). Rater Accuracy and Training Group Effects in Expert and Supervisor-Based Monitoring Systems. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 24, 44-59. DOI: 10.1080/0969594X.2015.1108283.
  4. Brunton-Smith, I., Sturgis, P., Leckie, G. (2017). Detecting, and understanding interviewer effects on survey data using a cross-classified mixed-effects location scale model. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 180, 2, 551-568. DOI: 10.1111/rssa.12205.
  5. Leckie, G., & Goldstein, H. (2017). The evolution of school league tables in England 1992-2016: ‘contextual value-added’, ‘expected progress’ and ‘progress 8’British Educational Research Journal, 43, 193-212. DOI: 10.1002/berj.3264.
  6. Steele F., Clarke, P., Leckie, G., Allan, J., & Johnston, D. (2017). Multilevel structural equation models for longitudinal data where predictors are measured more frequently than outcomes: An application to the effects of stress on the cognitive function of nurses. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 180, 263-283. DOI: 10.1111/rssa.12191.
  7. Browne, D.T., Leckie, G., Prime, H., Perlman, M., & Jenkins, J. (2016). Observed sensitivity during family interactions and cumulative risk: A study of multiple dyads per family. Developmental Psychology, 52, 1128-1138.
  8. Diedrichs, P. C., Atkinson, M. J. Garbett, K. M., Williamson, H., Halliwell, E., Rumsey, N. Leckie, G., Sibley, C. G., & Barlow, F. K. (2016). Randomised controlled trial of an online mother-daughter body image and well-being interventionHealth Psychology, 35, 996-1006. DOI: 10.1037/hea0000361.
  9. Goldstein, H. and Leckie, G. Trends in examination performance and exposure to standardised tests in England and Wales. (2016). British Educational Research Journal, 42, 367-375.
  10. Merlo, J., Wagner, P., Ghith, N., & Leckie, G. (2016). An original stepwise multilevel logistic regression analysis of discriminatory accuracy: the case of neighbourhoods and health. PLoS ONE, 11(4), 1-31. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0153778.
  11. Sandhu, S. and Leckie, G. (2016). Orthodontic pain trajectories in adolescents: how different are the individuals? American Journal of Orthodontics & Dentofacial Orthopedics, 149, 491-500.
  12. Zhang, Z., Parker, R., Charlton, C.,  Leckie, G., and Browne, W.J. R2MLwiN - A program to run the MLwiN multilevel modelling software from within RJournal of Statistical Software, 72, 10, 1-43.
  13. Koster, J., Leckie, G., Miller, A., and Hames, R. (2015). Multilevel modeling analysis of dyadic network data with an application to Ye’kwana food sharingAmerican Journal of Physical Anthropology, 157, 507-512.
  14. Perlman, M., Lyon Amos, M., Leckie, G., Steele, F. and Jenkins, J. Capturing the temporal sequence of interaction in young siblings. PLoS ONE, 10(5), 1-21.
  15. Leckie, G. and Goldstein, H. (2015). A multilevel modelling approach to measuring changing patterns of ethnic composition and segregation among London secondary schools, 2001-2010. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 178, 405-424.
  16. Koster, J. and Leckie, G. (2014). Food sharing networks in lowland Nicaragua: An application of the social relations model to count data. Social Networks, 38, 100-110.
  17. Leckie, G. (2014). runmixregls - A program to run the MIXREGLS mixed-effects location scale software from within Stata. Journal of Statistical Software, 59 (Code Snippet 2), 1-41.
  18. Leckie, G., French, R., Charlton, C., and Browne, W. (2014). Modeling heterogeneous variance-covariance components in two-level models. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 39, 307-332.
  19. Zammit, S., Gunnell, D., Lewis, G., Leckie, G., Dalman, C. and Allebeck, P. (2014). Individual and area level influence on suicide risk: a multilevel longitudinal study of Swedish school children. Psychological Medicine, 44, 267–277. 
  20. Leckie, G. and Charlton, C. (2013). runmlwin - A program to run the MLwiN multilevel modelling software from within Stata. Journal of Statistical Software, 52 (11),1-40.
  21. Jenkins, J., Rasbash, J., Leckie, G., Gass, K. and Dunn, J. (2012). The role of maternal factors in sibling relationship quality: a multilevel study of multiple dyads per family. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 53, 622-629.
  22. Leckie, G., Pillinger, R., Jones, K. and Goldstein, H. (2012). Multilevel modelling of social segregation. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 37, 3-30.
  23. Cheung, C., Goodman, D., Leckie, G. and Jenkins, J. (2011). Understanding contextual effects on externalizing behaviors in children in out-of-home care: Influence of workers and foster families. Children and Youth Services Review, 33, 2050-2060.
  24. Leckie, G. and Baird, J.-A. (2011). Rater effects on essay scoring: A multilevel analysis of severity drift, central tendency and rater experience. Journal of Educational Measurement, 48, 399-418.
  25. Leckie, G. and Goldstein, H. (2011). A note on “The limitations of using school league tables to inform school choice”. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 174, 833-836.
  26. Leckie, G. and Goldstein, H. (2011). Understanding uncertainty in school league tables. Fiscal Studies, 32, 207-224.
  27. Rasbash, J., Leckie, G., Pillinger, R. and Jenkins, J. (2010). Children's educational progress: partitioning family, school and area effects, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 173, 1-26.
  28. Leckie, G. (2009). The complexity of school and neighbourhood effects and movements of pupils on school differences in models of educational achievement, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 172, 537-554.
  29. Leckie, G. and Goldstein, H. (2009). The limitations of using school league tables to inform school choice, Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), 172, 835-851.
  30. Propper, C., Burgess, S., Bolster, A., Leckie, G., Jones, K. and Johnston, R. (2007). The impact of neighbourhood on the income and mental health of British social renters, Urban Studies, 44, 393-415.
  31. Propper, C., Damiani, M., Leckie, G. and Dixon, J. (2007). Impact of patients’ socioeconomic status on the distance travelled for hospital admission in the English National Health Service, Journal of Health Service Research & Policy, 12, 153-159.

Other publications