QUADAS-C (C stands for comparative) is an extension to QUADAS-2 for assessing risk of bias in comparative accuracy studies.

Download the QUADAS-C tool
QUADAS-C tool.docx (Office document, 43kB) or QUADAS-C tool.pdf (PDF, 219kB)

Download guidance on how to use QUADAS-C
Guidance document (PDF, 657kB)

D‌ownload template for tabular display of QUADAS-C assessments
QUADAS-C tabular template (Office document, 32kB)

D‌ownload template for graphical display of QUADAS-C assessments
QUADAS-C graphical template (Office document, 23kB)

What is QUADAS-C for?

  • For assessing risk of bias of a test comparison in comparative accuracy studies (primary studies that compare the accuracy of two or more index tests)

What is QUADAS-C not intended to do?

  • QUADAS-C does not assess risk of bias in test comparisons made between studies, each evaluating a single index test (also called between-study or indirect comparisons)
  • QUADAS-C does not assess concerns regarding applicability

What does it mean that QUADAS-C is an extension to QUADAS-2?

  • QUADAS-C cannot be used alone and must be used alongside QUADAS-2. This is because some questions in QUADAS-C require judgements made using QUADAS-2. The use of these tools will then lead to separate risk of bias judgements for single test accuracy (QUADAS-2) and comparative accuracy (QUADAS-C).


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