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Variations on the footnote system

There are many ways of writing references in footnotes and compiling a bibliography, which differ from that described in this tutorial. The important thing is to be consistent. You must maintain the same referencing style throughout a piece of work, and ensure that the format of the bibliography reflects that used in the notes.


These are examples of footnotes taken from three journal articles on the history of Africa. Note, for example, the variation in the position of the date, the use of 'ed' and 'eds', and the lack of place of publication or publisher.

R. B. Hitchner, 'Image and reality. Pastoralism in the Tunisian high steppe in the Roman and late antique period', in J. Carlsen et al. (eds), Landuse in the Roman Empire (1994), 27-43.

D.J. Mattingly (1996), From one colonialism to another: imperialism and the Maghreb', in J. Webster and N. Cooper (eds.), Roman Imperialism: post-colonial perspectives (Leicester), 49-69.

J. Hutchinson (ed.), The early history of agriculture (London 1976), 187-96.

Next time you visit the library, find some books and journal articles for your own subject and note how the referencing format differs between them.