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A bibliography is a complete list of the references used in a piece of academic writing. The sources should be listed in alphabetical order by surname of the author or editors name. Where there are more than one author or editor, the name of the first should be used to place the work. A bibliographical entry should not end with a full stop.

Unlike a reference in a footnote, the given names and surnames of the author or editor are reversed. Where there are multiple authors, only the first name should be reversed.


Frend, W.H.C., The Donatist Church: A Movement of Protest in Roman North Africa (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1952)

Nietzsche, Friedrich, The Birth of Tragedy and Other Writings, ed. by Raymond Guess and Ronald Speirs (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999)

Lancel, Serge, Saint Augustine, trans. by Antonia Nevill (London: SCM, 2002)

Leone, Anna, Evolution and Change: Town and Country in Late Antique North Africa (unpublished doctoral thesis, University of Leicester, 2001)

Mattingly D. J., 'Libyans and the "Limes": Culture and Society in Roman Tripolitania', Antiquités africaines, 23 (1987), 71-94

Shaw Brent D., 'Who Were the Circumcellions?' in Vandals, Romans and Berbers: New Perspectives on Late Antique North Africa ed. by A. H. Merrills (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004), pp. 227-58

Books with editors

Where a book has been referenced in a note with the title first, the title and editor's names should be reversed, and the name should be followed by 'ed.' or 'trans'.


Compare these bibliographical entries to the references to the same works above.

Christie, Neil, ed., Landscapes of Change: Rural Evolutions in Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2004)

Soffe, Richard J., ed., Primrose McConnell's The Agricultural Notebook, 20th edn, (Oxford: Blackwell, 2003)

Multiple works by the same author

When several works by the same author are included in the bibliography, they should be listed in date order, with the most recent first. The earlier works should be indented with a horizontal line or hyphen in place of the title.


Brown, Peter, The World of Late Antiquity: AD150-750 (London: Thames and Hudson, 1971)

-'Religious Dissent in the Later Roman Empire: The Case of North Africa', History, 46 (1961), 83-101