Projects allow students to put theory into practice and develop important skills in planning, organisation and communication.
Third year individual research projects
Our students are tackling a wide range of real-world problems - here are just a few.
Cooling caps for new-born brains affected by oxygen starvation.
Ben Boxer: Investigating the use of generative design to improve a mountain bike swingarm, in collaboration with Autodesk and Starling Cycles
Supervisor: Professor Ben Hicks
Generative design is an iterative, automated design tool that uses machine learning to generate large numbers of valid designs to meet engineering criteria, including manufacturing and material constraints. This project explored how it might be used to optimise performance, longevity and serviceability of the swingarm on a particular bike model (The Starling Cycles mountain bike). The study used free body calculations, finite element analysis and stiffness testing of a sample swingarm. The results indicated load paths and stiffness characteristics enabling the set up of the generative design problem, to be evaluated using CAD models of other connected components. After a number of iterations, the final proposal was a single DMLS stainless steel part, welded to the frame. This met compliance and safety requirements. The prototype was seven per cent lighter and would take around half the time to produce.
The project demonstrated the potential of generative design in manufacturing and has attracted media interest. Read more in a blog on the Autodesk website.
Supervisor: Dr Alberto Gambaruto
Computational fluid dynamics can help to assess the risk rupture of cerebral aneurysms. The project looked at blood flow using:
- Wall shear stress to approximate velocity tangential to the aneurysm wall
- Normal convective transport for velocity normal to the wall
- Wall shear stress critical points to indicate flow impingement and separation for three patient-specific cases
Xin Tu found that stresses differ significantly between aneurysms on side-wall and ones at bifurcation and concluded that the analysis technique could be applied to the wider population. Her work was included in a journal paper.
Supervisor: Dr Hind Saidani-Scott
Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy is a condition in new-borns where oxygen starvation causes death or lasting disability. Treatment is expensive and consists of cooling the subject to a mild hypothermic state. Phase change materials (PCM) store and release energy at a specific temperature and could offer safe and cheap treatment. Project aims:
- Design, prototype and test a PCM cooling cap for first response treatment
- Assess and adapt design aspects based on performance
A model head was made using a PVC mannequin head, tubing and a water bath, set to the core temperature of a new-born to simulate body heating. Using thermocouples placed on the interior and exterior of the head, cooling was recorded over three hours for three PCMs and cooled water. The prototypes were also designed to be washable and had a temperature sensor to warn of overcooling.
Supervisor: Professor Bruce Drinkwater
Conventional sound absorbers are often large, bulky and expensive. In this project the aim was to create a block that attenuated more energy than a conventional absorber at a sub-wavelength scale. Space-coiling metamaterials force the wave to take a longer path than it otherwise would.
Using finite element methods for concept development, 3D printing for testing in an impedance tube and processing the data, Chris's use of 'fins' was shown to be much more effective than foam.
Supervisor: Professor Martyn Pavier
The mechanism of fracture through fatigue is a major concern for the coronary stent industry. The project looked at effects of the combined environmental factors such as surface abrasion, corrosion and local plasticity. A finite element analysis model was created to give insight into the stress state in balloon expandable coronary stents subjected to the loads of expansion and cyclic service.
As no suitable testing apparatus was available, Matt built a a fatigue test rig. Using fine wire samples of SS316L alloy, he found that coronary stents are subject to fretting wear caused by calcifications and corrosion due to the chemical makeup of blood. The samples were prepared with surface abrasion using a file and suspended in Hank’s solution, which has identical corrosive properties to blood.
Supervisor: Dr Alberto Gambaruto
If people are comfortable in outdoor public spaces, they're more likely to socialise and take advantage of local shops and services. In built-up environments, tall buildings can create 'urban-canyons' where wind speeds keep us inside. This project used a CAD model to examine wind conditions in a particular site (Christmas steps in Bristol) and what improvement might be gained from additional trees.
Building height and topography data were used to build a simplified city CAD model. The analysis used a porous region approach to model the wind break effect of trees. Velocity distribution diagrams showed how Bristol's trees effectively reduced wind speed around pedestrian areas and suggested that further study on porous region trees would be beneficial.
First year cup dispenser project
Fourth year group projects - be a team player
Project groups solve open-ended problems that are often driven by industry or user need. It's a great way to hone project management skills including:-
- marketing and communication
- team roles and dynamics
- interpreting requirements
- technical specifications
- design and manufacture
- safety and performance evaluation.
It's also great fun! See what these past students have to say.