Militarized Landscapes Bibliography

This list of secondary literature includes work on the environmental history of war, military geographies, and landscapes and ecologies of war. It is not intended to be exhaustive. If you would like to suggest any additions to it, please email one of the project team.

Amat, Jean-Paul, ‘Guerre et milieux naturels: les forêts meurtries de l’est de la France, 70 ans après Verdun,’ L’Espace géographique 3 (1987): 217-33.

Bach, M., ‘Les forêts mitraillées en Lorraine,’ Revue forestière française 27 (1975), 217-22

Bennett, Judith A., ‘War, Emergency and the Environment: Fiji, 1939-1946,’ Environment and History 7 (2001): 255-87

Bennett, Judith A., ‘Local Resource Use in the Pacific War with Japan: Logging in Western Melanesia,’ War and Society 21 (May 2003): 83-118

Bevan, Robert, The Destruction of Memory: Architecture at War (London: Reaktion Books, 2006)

Biggs, David, ‘Managing a Rebel Landscape: Conservation, Pioneers, and the Revolutionary Past in the U Minh Forest, Vietnam,’ Environmental History 10/3 (July 2005), accessed through 1-24.

Black, Brian, ‘Gallery: Brian Black on the Copse at Gettysberg,’ Environmental History 9/2 (April 2004): 306-10

Brady, Lisa. M., ‘The Wilderness of War: Nature and Strategy in the American Civil War,’ Environmental History 10/3 (July 2005): 421-47

Boulanger, Philippe, Géographie militaire (Paris: Ellipses, 2006)

Charlesworth, Andrew, and Michael Addis, ‘Memorialisation and the Ecological Landscapes of Holocaust Sites: The Cases of Auschwitz and Plaszow,’ Landscape Research 27/3 (2002): 229-51

Childs, John, The Military Use of the Land: A History of the Defence Estate (Berne: Peter Lang, 1998)

Clout, Hugh, After the Ruins: Restoring the Countryside of Northern France after the Great War (Exeter: University of Exeter Press, 1996)

Cocroft, Wayne D., and Roger J. C. Thomas, Cold War: Building for Nuclear Confrontation 1946-1989 (Swindon: English Heritage, 2003)

Cooper, Jilly, Animals in War (London: Heineman, 1983)

Corvol, Andrée, and Jean-Paul Amat (eds.), Forêt et guerre (Paris: L’Harmattan, 1994)

Dycus, Stephen, National Defense and the Environment (Hanover NH and London: University Press of New England, 1986)

Ehrlich, Anne, and John W. Birks (eds.), Hidden Dangers: Environmental Consequences of Preparing for War (San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1990)

Environmental Law Institute Research Report, Addressing Environmental Consequences of War: Background Paper for the International Conference on Addressing Environmental Consequences of War: Legal, Economic, and Scientific Perspectives (Washington D.C.: 1988), accessed at

El-Baz, Farouk, and R.M. Makharita (eds.), The Gulf War and the Environment (Lausanne: Gordon and Breach, 1994)

Flint, Colin (ed.), The Geography of War and Peace (New York: Oxford University Press, 2005)

Gallagher, Carole, American Ground Zero: The Secret Nuclear War (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1993)

Gibson, Craig, ‘The British Army, French Farmers, and the War on the Western Front, 1914-1918,’ Past and Present 180 (August 2003), 175-240

Hastings, Tom H., Ecology of War and Peace: Counting the Costs of Conflict (Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2000)

Hepland, Kenneth I., Defiant Gardens: Making Gardens in Wartime (San Antonio, TX: Trinity University Press, 2006)

Homer-Dixon, Thomas F., Environment, Scarcity, and Violence (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999)

Hulme, Karen, War Torn Environment: Interpreting the Legal Threshold (Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2004)

Käkönen, Jyrki, (ed.), Green Security or Militarized Environment (Aldershot: Dartmouth, 1994)

Lamborne, Nicola, War Damage in Western Europe: The Destruction of Historic Monuments During the Second World War (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2001)

Lahtinen, Rauno, and Timo Vuorisalo, ‘“It’s war and everyone can do as they please!” An Environmental History of a Finnish City in Wartime,’ Environmental History 9/4 (October 2004): 879-700

Lanier-Graham, Susan D., The Ecology of War: Environmental Impacts of Weaponry and Warfare (New York: Walker, 1993)

Linenthal, Edward Tabor, Sacred Ground: Americans and their Battlefields (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991)

Le Billon, Philippe, Fuelling War: Natural Resources and Armed Conflict (Abington: Routledge: 2005)

Lee Peluso, Nancy, and Michael Watts, (eds.), Violent Environments (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2001)

McNeill, John R. ‘Woods and Warfare in World History,’ Environmental History, 9/3 (July 2004): 388-410

Morris, Mandy S., ‘Gardens “For Ever England”: Identity and the First World War British Cemeteries on the Western Front,’ Ecumene 4/4 (October 1997) 410-34

Nietschmann, Bernard, ‘Battlefields of Ash and Mud,’ Natural History 11/90 (November 1990): 35-7

O’ Sullivan, Patrick, and Jesse. W. Miller, The Geography of Warfare (London: Croom Helm, 1983)

O’Sullivan, Patrick, Terrain and Tactics (Westport CT: Greenwood Press, 1991)

Palka, Eugene J., and Francis A. Galgano, Military Geography from Peace to War (Boston: McGraw-Hill Custom, 2005)

Pearson, Chris, ‘“The Age of Wood’: Fuel and Fighting in French Forests, 1940-1944,’ Environmental History (October 2006): 775-803

Richardson, Mervyn, (ed.), The Effect of War on the Environment: Croatia (London: E & FN Spon, 1995)

Robinson, J.P., The Effects of Weapons on Ecosystems (Oxford: Pergamon Press for the United Nations Environment Programme, 1979)

Russell, Edmund P., War and Nature: Fighting Humans and Insects with Chemicals from World War 1 to Silent Spring (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2001)

Russell, Edmund P., and Richard P. Tucker (eds.), Natural Enemy, Natural Ally: Toward an Environmental History of Warfare (Corvallis: Oregon State University Press, 2004)

Schofield, John (ed.), Monuments of War: The Evaluation, Recording and Management of Twentieth Century Military Sites (London: English Heritage, 1998)

Stevens, Richard L., The Trail: A History of the Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Role of Nature in the War in Vietnam (New York and London: Garland Publising, 1995)

Survivre et revivre: guerre et destruction de l’environnement en Croatie, 1991 (La Possonière: Environnement sans frontière, 1994)

Szasz, Ferenc M., ‘The Impact of World War II on the Land: Gruinard Island, Scotland, and Trinty Site, New Mexico as Case Studies,’ Environmental History Review 19/4 (Winter 1995): 15-30

Thomas, William, Scorched Earth: The Military’s Assault on the Environment (Philadelphia, PA: New Society Publishers, 1995)

Tsutsui, William M., ‘Landscapes in the Dark Valley: Toward an Environmental History of Wartime Japan,’ Environmental History 8/2 (April 2003): 294-311

Vadort, Claude-Marie, Guerres et environnement: panorama des paysages et des écosystèmes bouleversés (Paris: Delachux et Niestlé, 2005)

Weizman, Eyal, Hollow Land: Israel’s Architecture of Occupation (London: Verso, 2007)

West, Joshua, ‘Forests and National Security: British and American Forest Policy in the Wake of World War I,’ Environmental History 8/2 (April 2003): 270-94

Westing, Arthur, Ecological Consequences of the Second Indochina War (Stockholm: SIRPI, 1976)

Westing, Arthur, Weapons of Mass Destruction and the Environment (London: Taylor & Francis, 1977)

Westing, Arthur, Warfare in a Fragile World: Military Impact on the Human Environment (London: Taylor & Francis, 1980)

Westing, Arthur (ed.), Global Resources and International Conflict: Environmental Factors in Strategic Policy and Action (New York: Oxford University Press, 1986)

Westing, Arthur, (ed.), Cultural Norms, War, and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1988)

Winters, H. A., Gerald E. Galloway Jr., William J. Reynolds, and David W. Rhyne, Battling the Elements: Weather and Terrain in the Conduct of War (Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998)

Woodward, Rachel, Military Geographies (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004)

Wright, Patrick, The Village that Died for England: The Strange Story of Tyneham (London: Jonathan Cape, 1995)

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