Footnotes and Endnotes
In the MHRA system, references to sources used in your work are set out in full in notes, either at the bottom of each page (footnotes) or at the end of the piece of work (endnotes). In a book-length piece, a new series of notes should begin with each chapter.
Every time the ideas, facts or opinions of another are used in a piece of work it must be acknowledged with a full reference. Whether a source is quoted directly or indirectly, paraphrased or summarised, it must be acknowledged with a footnote or endnote. To do otherwise is plagiarism.
Notes should include the minimum information necessary for a reader to find and consult your source. Other material should, as far as possible, be included in the text. Footnotes should never be used as a means of getting round word limits by including information or argument in them that should be in the main text. It should be possible to read the entire piece of work without having to refer to a footnote for anything other than references.
Notes should be numbered sequentially (1,2,3 etc). Do not use the same number more than once to refer the reader to an earlier note.
Numbers should follow punctuation, and preferably be placed at the end of a sentence. Numbers should, however, be placed before a dash. When citing quoted sources, the number should be placed at the end of the quotation and not after the author's name if that appears first in the text.
Notes should always end with a full stop.
It has long been argued that pork and leek sausages are better than pork and apple.1 However, Neville has recently produced conclusive evidence to the contrary.2
1 John Butcher, The Perfect Sausage: From Pigsty to Plate (Cumberland: Pork Press, 1990), pp. 78-90.
2 Harry Neville, Breakfast Bangers (London: Brown, 2005), pp. 56-98.
In his 'Sausages Are Not the Only Meat', Brown set out what has now become the standard definition of 'the perfect sausage'1 - though not without causing a degree of consternation among scholars.
1 James Brown, Sausages Are Not the Only Meat (Cumberland: Pork Press, 1995), pp. 60-78.
In which of these sentences are the note numbers correctly placed?