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Publication - Dr Simon Hammann

    Tocopherols, Tocomonoenols, and Tocotrienols in Oils of Costa Rican Palm Fruits

    A Comparison between Six Varieties and Chemical versus Mechanical Extraction

    Citation

    Irías-Mata, A, Stuetz, W, Sus, N, Hammann, S, Gralla, K, Cordero-Solano, A, Vetter, W & Frank, J, 2017, ‘Tocopherols, Tocomonoenols, and Tocotrienols in Oils of Costa Rican Palm Fruits: A Comparison between Six Varieties and Chemical versus Mechanical Extraction’. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, vol 65., pp. 7476-7482

    Abstract

    Palm oil is one of the richest sources of tocotrienols and may contain other non-tocopherol vitamin E congeners. The vitamin E profiles of fully ripened fruit mesocarp of three Elaeis guineensis, two Elaeis oleifera, and one hybrid O × G palm fruit genotypes from Costa Rica were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after mechanical extraction by a screw press and chemical extraction with hexane. γ-Tocotrienol, α-tocotrienol, and α-tocopherol were the most abundant tocochromanols, while other tocopherols (β-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, and δ-tocopherol) and α-tocomonoenol were detected at minor concentrations. Significant differences in vitamin E profiles between genotypes were observed, and the variety E. oleifera Quepos (CB9204) had by far the highest content of total tocotrienols (890 μg/g of oil) and total vitamin E (892 μg/g of oil). Chemical extraction with hexane afforded up to 2.5-fold higher vitamin E yields than screw press extraction. α-Tocomonoenol co-eluted with γ-tocopherol in reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography analyses and is a possible source of error in the quantification of γ-tocopherol in foods.

    Full details in the University publications repository