Professor Daniel Robert

Photo of Professor Daniel Robert

Professor Daniel Robert

Office: C35, D34, D70 Labs: A90, A85, A86a, D70, D70a,
Woodland Road, Bristol
BS8 1UG
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d.robert@bristol.ac.uk

Telephone Number (0117) 928 7484
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Organisations

School of Biological Sciences

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Bionanoscience, auditory mechanics

Biography

Daniel Robert is a sensory biologist with 22 years experience on the biomechanics and sensory ecology of miniature auditory systems. His interests include the development and use of analytical methods for measuring nanoscale vibrations in biological systems. Robert is Professor of Bionanoscience at the School of Biological Sciences, and the recipient of a Royal Society Wolfson Research Merit Award. Previously, he held a START fellowship (Swiss Science Foundation Research Professor) at the University of Zurich (1996-2001). During that time, he was also the recipient of the Schering Fellowship at the Institute for Advanced Study in Berlin, where he convened the bio-inspired technologies study group. Prior to that, he spent 5 years at Cornell University as a Research Associate (1991-1996). Robert’s research involves interdisciplinary collaborations with sensory biologists, physiologists, molecular geneticists, engineers, mathematicians and physicists. His investigations of the biophysics of hearing in insects have contributed fundamental knowledge in the field of auditory research and nanoscale biomechanics. Robert first studied at the University of Neuchatel, Switzerland, for a MSc in experimental Biology (1985). In 1989, he was awarded a PhD by the University of Basle, Switzerland for his work on the cybernetic steering behaviour of flying locusts.

Research overview

My research investigates the biophysical mechanisms used by organisms to sense their environment.

Using insects as model systems, my research contributes to understanding the foundations of hearing and electroreception. These senses are investigated at multiple levels, from the molecular basis of mechanoreception to the psychophysics of auditory behaviour. My research has unveiled a novel mechanism of directional sound detection used by a small parasitoid fly. Studying mosquitoes we discovered that the mosquito auditory system -its antennae- is sensitive to nanometre-range vibrations. This result led to the discovery that mosquitoes and fruitflies are endowed with active auditory mechanics. Much like the ears of mammals, these auditory systems use the motility of their mechanoreceptive cells, ciliated neurones in insects, to enhance their mechanical sensitivity and frequency selectivity (eg. Goepfert et al 2003 PNAS, Jackson&Robert 2006 PNAS). We have recently shown that in tree crickets, nonlinear active mechanisms rely on the action of a critical oscillator to generate frequency-selective signal amplification (Mhatre&Robert 2013, Current Biology).

Our research also showed that frequency selectivity in the locust is possible through the anisotropic characteristics of its eardrum. Phenomenologically, we demonstrated the build up of a travelling wave which is frequency-dependent, analogous to a propagating nanoscale tsunami. The travelling wave results in the spatial dispersion of frequencies as well as energy localisation. The physical mechanism was shown to rely on membrane mass distribution and tension alone, a mechanism likely to be useful for the bio-inspired design of sensitive analytical microphones (Malkin et al 2013, Royal Society Interface). The microscale ears of insects can be sophisticated; we showed that those of the Amazonian Copiphora bushcricket exhibit the three canonical steps of mammalian hearing, including pressure reception, impedance conversion and frequency selectivity (Montealegre-Z et al 2012 Science). This research established that it is possible to perform these biophysical tasks using microscale auditory organs. 

We have recently discovered that bumble bees can detect floral electric fields and learn their presence and structure to inform foraging decisions (Clarke et al. 2013. Science). My research team could demonstrate that bumblebees can be trained to distinguish between experimental feeding stations (simulating flowers) that are at different electrostatic potentials. In brief, the main findings are: 1. Flowers are surrounded by weak electrostatic fields arising by interaction with the natural atmospheric potential gradient. 2. Bees can detect the presence of these fields. 3. Floral electrostatic potential changes as bees approach and visit the flower. 4. Bees can learn differences in magnitude and structure of floral electrostatic fields. Remarkably, further experiments demonstrated that bees learn more readily the difference between two shades of green when electrostatic fields are present. This discovery leads to the conclusion that weak electrostatic potentials constitute a previously unsuspected form of information that plays a role in the complex interaction between plants and their pollinators.

Key words

hearing, mechanoreception, nanoscale biomechanics, sensory biophysics, electric ecology, physical ecology, bio-inspired technology

Key findings

  • Nanoscale mechanisms of hearing in insects and invertebrates
  • Active mechanisms in sensory systems - critical oscillators
  • electroreception in insects
  • physical ecology - acoustics & electrics
  • Biophysics of sound generation and radiation
  • From insect ears to smart microphones

Research group

Robert Malkin, Natasha Mhatre

Techniques in routine use

Vibration analysis of microscale objects, Acoustic and mechanical actuation, Sound field measurement and visualisation, Micro-computed X-ray tomography, Behavioural and psychophysical analysis, Computer modelling, Micro and nanofabrication

Equipment in routine use

Microscanning laser Doppler vibrometry - Polytec PSV300 & PSV400, Atomic Force microscopy - JPK Nanowizard Bioscope, Optical tweezers - dual beam IR, Electrophysiology - extracellular, Faraday Pail - Field Mill - Electrostatics

Collaborations

Department of Engineering Mathematics, Bristol Center for Nanoscience & Quantum Information, Department of Physics, Department of Mechanical Engineering, London Ear Institute UCL, Interdisciplinary Research collaboration in Nanotechnology (Cambridge-UCL-Bristol)

Teaching

• Sensory Ecology. Ecophysics, Mechanisms and Evolution of sensory systems in animals. Biological Sciences. Year 3 Unit.

• Biophysics Course. Invited lecturer. Department of Physics.

• Sensory systems. year 2 Unit.

• Diversity of Life, year 1 Unit



Key publications

  1. Malkin, R, Mcdonagh, TRN, Mhatre, N, Scott, TB & Robert, D 2013, ‘Energy localisation and frequency analysis in the locust ear’. Journal of the Royal Society, Interface / the Royal Society.
  2. Clarke, DJ, Whitney, HM, Sutton, GP & Robert, D 2013, ‘Detection and Learning of Floral Electric Fields by Bumblebees’. Science, vol 340., pp. 66-69
  3. Zapata, FM, Jonsson, BT, Brown, KAR, Postles, MC & Robert, D 2012, ‘Convergent evolution between mammalian and insect audition’. Science, vol 338., pp. 968-971
  4. Mhatre, N & Robert, D 2013, ‘A tympanal insect ear exploits a critical oscillator for active amplification and tuning’. Current Biology, vol 23., pp. 1952-1957
  5. Mhatre, N, Fernando, M-Z, Rohini, B & Robert, D 2012, ‘Changing resonator geometry to boost sound power decouples size and song frequency in a small insect’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol 109., pp. E1444-E1452
  6. Montealegre-Z, F & Robert, D 2012, ‘Wing stridulation in a Jurassic katydid (Insecta, Orthoptera) produced low-pitched musical calls to attract females’. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol 109., pp. 3868 - 3873

Latest publications

  1. Payton, OD, Picco, L, Robert, D, Raman, A, Homer, ME, Champneys, AR & Miles, MJ 2012, ‘High-speed atomic force microscopy in slow motion-understanding cantilever behaviour at high scan velocities’. Nanotechnology, vol 23.
  2. Gagliano, M, Mancuso, S & Robert, D 2012, ‘Towards understanding plant bioacoustics’. Trends in plant science, vol 17., pp. 323-325
  3. Rajaraman, K, Mhatre, N, Jain, M, Rohini, B & Robert, D 2012, ‘Low pass filters and differential tympanal tuning in a paleotropical bushcricket with an unusually low frequency call’. The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol 216., pp. 777-787
  4. Mhatre, N, Monisha, B, Robert, D & Rohini, B 2011, ‘Matching sender and receiver: poikilothermy and frequency tuning in a tree cricket’. Journal of Experimental Biology, vol 214., pp. 2569 - 2578

Full publications list in the University of Bristol publications system

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