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Publication - Professor Duncan Wass

    4D sequential actuation

    Combining ionoprinting and redox chemistry in hydrogels


    Baker, A, Wass, D & Trask, R, 2016, ‘4D sequential actuation: Combining ionoprinting and redox chemistry in hydrogels’. Smart Materials and Structures, vol 25.


    The programmable sequential actuation of two-dimensional hydrogel membranes into three-dimensional folded architectures has been achieved by combining ionoprinting and redox chemistry; this methodology permits the programmed evolution of complex architectures triggered through localized out-of-plane deformations. In our study we describe a soft actuator which utilizes ionoprinting of iron and vanadium, with the selective reduction of iron through a mild reducing agent, to achieve chemically controlled sequential folding. Through the optimization of solvent polarity and ionoprinting variables (voltage, duration and anode composition), we have shown how the actuation pathways, rate-of-movement and magnitude of angular rotation can be controlled for the design of a 4D sequential actuator.

    Full details in the University publications repository