Research questions

 Ivy bee on Ivy
Sampling in Reading farmland Sampling in Reading farmland
Sampling in Dundee nature reserve Sampling in Dundee nature reserve

1. How does the pollinator biodiversity in urban areas compare to that of nature reserves and farmland?

While there is a growing appreciation of the value of urban habitats to pollinators, little is known regarding their worth in comparison to other habitats.

In the first stage of the project we investigated how insect pollinator communities in urban areas compare to those found in farmland and nature reserves. We proposed that pollinator species richness will be greatest in nature reserves (which theoretically contain the greatest amount of ‘natural’ habitat) and lowest in urban habitats (the most altered from their historical ‘natural’ state).

In 2011 we sampled replicate urban habitats, agro-ecosystems and nature reserves in and around 12 towns and cities across the UK. We collected data on pollinators, flowering plants and the interactions between them (i.e. which pollinator species were feeding on which flowering plant species).

Our four regional field teams collected data at 36 sites between May and September 2011. Urban areas were sampled in 12 towns and cities: Bristol, Cardiff, Swindon, Reading, London, Southampton, Leeds, Sheffield, Hull, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Dundee. A farmland site and a nature reserve site were sampled within 10 km of the urban boundary of each town or city.

We used the data to compare the plant and pollinator communities between urban habitats, agroecosystems and nature reserves. By counting the visits between the pollinators and flowers at each site we constructed plant-pollinator food webs showing the links between plant and pollinator species. The architecture of these webs can tell us a lot about how resilient these communities are likely to be to environmental change.

An example of a plant-pollinator food web for an urban habitat in Bristol (reproduced from Lopezaraiza-Mikel et al. 2007)


The findings of this study were published in the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society B in February 2015.

We have also produced a lay summary of the paper.

The reference for the paper is: Baldock, Goddard, Hicks, Kunin, Mitschunas, Osgathorpe, Potts, Robertson, Scott, Stone, Vaughan & Memmott (2015) Where is the UK's pollinator biodiversity? The importance of urban areas for flower-visiting insects. Proceedings of the Royal Society B 

We are very grateful to all landowners, reserve managers and garden owners who granted access to sample on their land in 2011.